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Aluminium constructions for your safety
Escalier d'evacuation en aluminium peint parallele a la facade avec volee inferieure relevable

Egress stairs

The preferred solution for fire escape.
Stairs are considered as the preferred solution for safe emergency evacuations and fire escapes. Here are also described there are 4 important parameters for the design: the dimensioning, the choice of material, the layout and the available options.

Exterior fire escape stairs are the preferred solution for safe emergency evacuation and fire escapes.

Depending on the dimensions there can be a certain "flow" of people evacuated at the same time in a safe and assuring way.

Evacuation stairs need to be stable and trustworthy at all times so they may not be worn by rust. For this reason JOMY stairs use only high quality aluminum that is anodized for extra protection.

They also need to comply with local building codes and approval of coding officials and fire brigade. JOMY has the knowledge and experience all over the world to get the JOMY stairs certified.

JOMY egress stairway design criterias

Dimensions

[PDF.png]Dimensions

The responsibilities for fire evacuation are spread over many different levels, which make the matter quite complex. Depending on the specific situation, many different and sometimes conflicting conditions may apply. We will try to describe "the best practices" through all legal texts, standards, and technical specifications. These specifications must always be verified by the local authorities.

Number of people to be evacuated

The dimensioning of the fire escape stairway must correspond to the number of individuals to be evacuated. This number is determined by the surface area of the compartment as follows:

  • 1 person per 10 m² for buildings that are not publicly accessible
  • 1 person per 3 m² for buildings that are publicly accessible
Number of escape routes

Generally, there schould be at least two independent, non-intersecting escape routes. The recommendations vary depending on the capacity of the building.

If there are 500 or more individuals, the recommandations are as follows:

  • 500 - 999 persons: 3 escape routes
  • 1000 - 1999 persons: 4 escape routes
  • 2000 - 2999 persons: 5 escape routes
  • Etc.

There are cases where a single fire escape route will suffice:

  • Buildings of less than 10m with fewer than 100 persons
  • Buildings between 10m and 25m  and fewer than 50 persons with access for fire ladders on the street side.

Even in these cases, the fire department often requires also a second escape route.

  • In general, the fire department can always ask additional escape routes.
Location of the emergency stairs

The escape stairways should go in opposite areas of the space. The maximum distance from the escape route to the stairway is fixed (not for technical rooms):

Use of the building during the day

  • Distance to path connecting two stairways: <= 30m
  • Distance to closest stair: <= 45m
  • Distance to second closest stair: <= 80m

Use of the building during the night

  • Distance to path connecting two stairways: <= 20m
  • Distance to closest stair: <= 30m
  • Distance to second closest stair: <= 60m

Maximum distance from a dead-end route is <= 15m

Access

Through doors and hallways:

  • Access door has to be Rf 1/2h for a building >= 25m
  • The doors cannot be locked in the direction of the evacuation.

Counterbalanced retractable flight or paneling/enclosure of the lower flight is allowed.

The stairs of buidlings > 25m must provide access to the roof (if roof is flat).

Usable Width (UW)

The usable width is determined by the largest number of persons to be evacuated. The sum of the UW of all descending stairs has to be at least equal to the number of persons to be evacuated from the largest compartment, multiplied by 1.25cm (ΣUW = number x 1.25cm).

The minimum UW is 80cm, which corresponds to an evacuation of 64 persons (80/1.25). UWs can be seen in multiples of 60cm (the transit unit), as follows:

  • UW of 80m for max 64 persons per compartment and per stair
  • UW of 120m for 65 to 96 persons per compartment and per stair
  • UW of 180m  for 97 to 144 persons per compartment and per stair
  • Etc.

In reality, there are often exceptions to the rule:

  • For medium and high buildings (> 10m, a minimum UW of 60cm can suffice (verify with authorized fire department).
  • Depending on the available space and number of persons to be evacuated, UWs of 90cm, 101cm, and 110cm may be used.
  • In schools and daycares, a UW of 120cm is provided, even when the number of persons to be evacuated is less than 64 per compartment.

Different stairs of the same compartment must have the same UW, plus or minus 60cm.

The value of 1.25cm per person applies with descending stairs. For rising stairs, 2cm per person is provided. For flat escape routes, the requirement is 1cm per person.

Configuration
  • The stairs must be at least 1m away from the wall opening (with <= Rf 1h).
  • At least one side must permit the free flow of air.
  • Spiral stairs are generally discouraged and for tall buildings (>=25m ) even prohibited. A spiral stair must have a thread of at least 24cm on the walk line, located 0.4m to 0.6m from the handrail or the spindle and at least 0.35m from the outer edges of the steps.
Inclines
  • Usually, an incline of 37° is requested (or about 75%).
  • For medium and high buildings (> 10m), an incline of 45° may be acceptable (confirm with authorized fire department). Sometimes, the stairs can only be used by persons with good mobility. For rising staircase, an incline of 45° is acceptable.
  • Inclines greater than 45° must be avoided.
Steps
  • The tread "a" and the riser "o" must meet the following formula: 600mm.
  • Risers are not necessary.
  • A lower flight may have a maximum of 17 steps. If a greater height must be bridged, an intermediate landing must be provided.
Guardrails

Always provide two guardrails per staircase.

Exception: One guardrail is sufficient for stairs with UW < 120cm, low buildings (< 10m), and when there is no risk of falling.

The minimum height for escape stairs is 1m on the landings and 0.9m on the stair flights, measured on the stair nose.

When used by children (schools, nurseries, etc):

  • The maximum gap between the vertical bars is < 80mm(< 70mm in Wallonia).
  • No horizontal elements to avoid children using them as a step.
  • Height of 1.1m instead of 1m.
  • Second guardrail at the height of the children (below the main guardrail).
Materials
  • Materials must be of class A0 (non-flammable material, such as aluminum, steel, or concrete).
  • There are no fire resistant requirements for outdoor stairs.
  • Stable materials must be used that will not gradually deteriorate with age.
Stability requirements
  • The stairs must be able to carry a uniformly distributed load of 102 lb/ft² or 500 Kg/m² on each flight (the surface projected on the horizontal plane) and on the landings.
  • The stairs must support a point load of 200Kg applied anywhere on the steps or the landing deck, and the guardrails need to be able to withstand a horizontally applied uniform load of 100 Kg/m, without permanent deformation.
The mechanical properties of JOMY stairs

Our egress stairs are developed to carry a uniformly distributed load of 102 lb/ft² or 500 Kg/m² on flights (surface projected on the horizontal plane) and landings. The stairs must support a point load of 200Kg applied anywhere on the steps or the landing deck, and the guardrails need to be able to withstand a horizontally applied uniform load of 100 Kg/m without permanent deformation.

Choice of materials

The choice between lightweight aluminum, stainless steel, galvanized steel, other steels and concrete as the right material for egress stairs is made based on four criteria: cost, technical performance, maintenance and environment. Lightweight aluminum will be economically interesting, requires no maintenance and is more sustainable.

Types of material
  • Aluminum: most commonly used material
  • Galvanized steel: most commonly used material
  • Stainless steel: not often used because of its high price -used in very specific situations (corrosive environment, food safety, etc.)
  • Other steels: little used and not recommended because of the lack of stability (corrosion, rust)
  • Concrete: rarely used for an additional exterior staircase - not used by JOMY.
Cost criteria

Aluminium:

  • The cost per Kg is relatively high, but little weight is required
  • Limited costs. Easy to apply. Easy to manipulate.
  • Lower costs for transportation, logistics and assembly. Low weight and meccano - assembly, no crane needed.
  • No maintenance required.

Galvanized steel:

  • The costs per Kg is relatively low, but much more weight is needed
  • More difficult to apply and manipulate
  • Heavier and more cumbersome structures. Crane needed for mounting.
  • Multiple maintenance and/or paint jobs required over lifetime.
Technical performance criteria

Aluminium:

  • Mechanical properties: similar heights, structures and functionalities
  • Lifetime stability: very good corrosion resistance, even on the coast
  • Melting point: Alu: 660 °C / Steel:> 1400°C. The difference in melting point is of little relevance. Above 80 ° C, the staircase is unusable in practice for evacuation.

Galvanized steel:

  • Mechanical properties: similar heights, structures and functionalities
  • lifetime stability: corrosion problems with damaged galvanization when installed and used
  • Melting point: Alu: 660 °C / Steel:> 1400°C. The difference in melting point is of little relevance. Above 80 ° C, the staircase is unusable in practice for evacuation.

These two materials can lead to identical functionnalities. In general, steel constructions will be slimmer and aluminium ones more practical.

Maintenance and environmental criterias

Aluminium:

  • Maintenance: no maintenance needed, even after 30+ years
  • Environment: 100% unlimited recyclable

Galvanized steel:

  • Maintenance: over time, corrosion problems occur with damage to the galvanizing layer or protective layer.
  • Environment: Recyclable in first cycle. Causes problems starting from secondary recycling. Zinc (galva) occurs in nature under influence of acid rain (heavy metal pollution).

Aluminium is a much more durable material than galvanised steel.

Layout and structure

Depending on your building, we can offer four standard layout options :

  • In-line stairs;
  • Crossed stairs, parallel to the façade;
  • Crossed stairs, perpendicular to the façade;
  • Rectangular stair layout;
  • Other lay out configurations are also developed on request.

The support structure can be of 2 kinds: the classic self-supporting structure mounted on columns; or it can be a suspended structure, mounted on brackets that are suspended from the façade.

Available options

There are multiple options available for egress stairs to improve safety.

  • Several guardrail models, including anti-slip JOMY steps, risers, etc. ;
  • "Escadesign" model, with polygonal balconies;
  • Burglar resistant models where access by unauthorized persons is prevented through counterbalanced retractable flight or enclosed lower flight, with access door and crash bar;
  • Several gates and chains to secure access to stairs and balconies;
  • Many types of paneling to enclose access to stairs and balconies;
  • Lower second handrail for children;
  • Custom balconies and passageways to connect to stairs;
  • Additional guardrails on concrete or handrails against the wall for security
  • Factory painting in any RAL color before delivery (polyester powder coating)
  • Etc.

Selfsupporting aluminum evacuation stairs
Primary solution for fire evacuation
A counterbalance aluminum staircasen in a back alley
Anodized in line aluminum stairs with walkway over rooptop
Inline outside Jomy stairs
JOMY counterbalanced stairs in painted aluminum
Een JOMY evacuatietrap in kleur met kooi aan de ingang als ingangsbeveiliging.
Aluminium evacuatietrap voor een school
Evacuatie trap voor een opvangcentrum
Unknown description
Een geanodiseerd aluminium trap van JOMY voor binnen en buiten, met relingen en andere opties.
JOMY | Custom aluminum constructions for your safety
Escalier d'evacuation avec garde-corps type barres paralleles
Escalier d'evacuation avec garde-corps type fuseaux verticaux 3 volees
painted crossed JOMY stair on a hotel
anodised aluminium JOMY crossed stairs
Een geanodiseerd aluminium trap van JOMY voor binnen en buiten, met relingen en andere opties.
Een geanodiseerd aluminium trap van JOMY voor binnen en buiten, met relingen en andere opties.
Different configurations for JOMY fire escape stairs are available.
In - Line Stairs
JOMY crossed stair in anodised aluminum
White painted JOMY crossed stair
JOMY crossed stairs tested on load
Een geanodiseerd aluminium trap van JOMY voor binnen en buiten, met relingen en andere opties.
JOMY | Custom aluminum constructions for your safety
Very open panneling of a JOMY crossed stair
JOMY crossed stairs in anodised aluminum self supporting
Support Structures
Anti panic lock on the outlet of JOMY stairs
Enclosure of a JOMY stair
Gate on JOMY stairs
Aluminum JOMY guardrail
JOMY FU guardrail
Special grading on JOMY aluminum step
Aluminum steps with rough grading
Design panneling in painted aluminum
Panneling with burgalar resistant door on crossed stairs
Door with panic bar at inside
Jomy stairs with double handrail
JOMY counterbalanced stairs in painted aluminum
Stairs with optional gate.
The specification guide of the JOMY stairs includes specific details of the configuration of the stairs, the used materials, its composition, the mechanical properties, the options counterbalancing and paneling.
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You can contact us directly at:
JOMY SA

en@jomy.be

+32 4 278 55 12

+32 4 278 26 75

Rue Bourgogne, 20 B-4452 Wihogne, Belgium

Brussels - Flanders

en@jomy.be

+32 2 771 13 72

+32 2 771 78 44

Av. de Broqueville, 274 B-1200 Brussels

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